Monthly Archives: November 2012

TV’s Bones, Steel, and Urine?

I was watching a wonderful Bones marathon on TV (this show is great for its intelligent jokes about art and the ancient world) and noticed this great little tale about steel in Ancient Rome. One of the scientists says that a certain instrument was made in Ancient Rome because it was fashioned in a peculiar way. He claims that the Romans believed if a red-headed boy urinated on heated up iron it would turn to steel. Obvious it is the chemical properties that make this change possible, but it makes for a great story of accidental science. Something interesting about this story is that it is another example of urination as a tool in the ancient world. The Romans had great uses for urine, my favorite being laundry detergent.

                In Ancient Rome urine was used to make togas whiter. The ammonia in urine has great cleaning properties; ammonia is still a common cleaning product today.  The people who did the laundry were called fullones. Outside the workplace of the fullones sat large containers which served like a public urinal. The people passing by would urinate in the containers and the fullones would have free detergent.    These pots could also be found around town and may be collected by fullones who needed more supplies; they even chose different places because better urine was usually found there. This phenomenon can be seen best in Pompeii where these workplaces and pots have been preserved and displayed in a natural setting. There is also a great deal of graffiti all over the town and some is surprisingly about this process.

                So next time you are out of your favorite stain remover maybe pee in the washer and see what happens. Okay, maybe you shouldn’t do that, but know that it has been done and that urine was a very important part of life in Ancient Rome.

For more reading on the specifics of this process see this paper:

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Magic in the Woods: Disney Princesses, Once Upon a Time, and Rex Nemorensis

                I recently saw a meme about Disney Princess and it said something like “I need to spend more time in the woods because that’s where all of the good men are.” I thought this was funny because I am a bit of an outdoors man and spend a lot of time in the woods, but then I thought about it and realized that most of the Disney Princesses do find their magic in the woods. This is not a theme only in Disney, however. Since ancient times magic has been found in dark wooded areas and often under great sleep deprivation. Some scholars believe this is due to the effects of sleep deprivation or hypothermia like hallucinations causing people to actually believe they experienced things beyond the realm of daily non-magical life. The following are a few classical examples of this phenomenon some of which you may find to be related.

                The first, and probably most obvious, is that Vergil’s character Aeneas had to go deep into the woods and search for a golden bough in order to gain entrance into the underworld. I have been in the cave in Cumae, Italy that is said to be the entrance to the underworld (my prof kind of ruined the magic for me by saying it was most likely a military defensive establishment to guard the temples at the top of the hill). It is easy to see when on sight that this would be a very dark place and in ancient days would have been surrounded by dark forests.

                A fundamental myth of the forest is the story of the Rex Nemorensis (king of the forest). This tradition, according to Sir James George Frazer, is the basis of many myths (note: some scholars argue strongly against his views). The myth has its roots in Nemi a small town with a very dark lake surrounded by dark forests. The area is sacred to the goddess Diana who has been mentioned before in this blog. Anyway, the tradition is given by Frazer as follows:

“In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instant he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and a murderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary. A candidate for the priesthood could only succeed to office by slaying the priest and having slain him, he retained office till he was himself slain by a stronger or craftier” (Frazer, Golden Bough, p. 1).

While this story is not exactly magical, it has been transformed into many magical myths and shows the roots of our modern obsession with magic taking place in the woods or with characters deprived of sleep. This story is also visited in the show Once Upon a Time as Rumpelstiltskin gains his power from the dark one in a tale almost exactly the same as this one.

                The point is that we often see today, especially in Disney and fairy tale type movies, that magic takes place in the forest. Even the princess from the Princess and the Frog finds her magic and her love in the depths of the woods. This is not a modern invention, but instead a theme that runs deep into ancient times. I hope that having read this, you will look for this theme in a variety of movies and shows and comment on this post with the many examples that exist in today’s pop culture.

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